Why are HEp-2 cells used in ANA testing?
The HEp-2 cell, a native protein array with hundreds of antigens, provides an ideal substrate for the detection of ANA1. The detection of ANA in human serum is an important screening tool for connective tissue diseases, and IIF is the reference method for ANA testing1.
What is a HEp-2 slide?
ANTIGEN SUBSTRATE SLIDE. INTENDED USE. The MBL Bion ANA (HEp-2) ANTIGEN SUBSTRATE SLIDES may be used as the antigenic substrate in indirect fluorescent antibody assays for the qualitative and/or semi-quantitative determination of antinuclear antibodies in human serum.
What is the direct immunofluorescence technique?
Direct immunofluorescence technique: it is a one-step histological staining procedure for identifying in vivo antibodies that are bound to tissue antigens, using a single antibody labeled with a fluorophore  for staining the tissues or cells. The antibody recognizes the target molecule and binds to it.
What is IFA HEp-2?
The ZEUS IFA ANA HEp-2 Test System is designed for the qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of antinuclear antibodies. This test system is intended to aid in determining SLE and differentiating clinically similar connective tissue disorders, and is for in vitro diagnostic use.
What is ANA by HEp-2 positive?
In most cases, a positive ANA test indicates that your immune system has launched a misdirected attack on your own tissue — in other words, an autoimmune reaction. But some people have positive ANA tests even when they’re healthy.
What are HEp-2 cell lines?
Hep-2/Hep2 cells are invaluable for researchers engaged in the analysis of autoantibodies, and they are currently one of the most common substrates for antinuclear antibody detection by immunofluorescence [6,7]. The Hep-2 cell line was first specifically described by H.W. Toolan in 1954 .
Where do HEp-2 cells come from?
The HEp-2 cell line originated from tumours produced after injection of rats with epidermoid carcinoma tissue.
What does a positive ANA HEp-2 substrate mean?
A positive result on an ANA test means that antinuclear antibodies were found in your blood. You may get a positive result if: You have SLE (lupus). You have a different type of autoimmune disease. You have a viral infection.
What is direct and indirect immunofluorescence?
Direct immunofluorescence involves a single antibody and fluorophore directly conjugated to this antibody. Indirect immunofluorescence involves two antibodies; primary and secondary and fluorophore conjugated to the secondary antibody.
What viral infections cause positive ANA?
In particular, several patients with a positive ANA test result were found to have intracellular infections such as mycobacterial infections, syphilis, or scrub typhus. Keywords: Antinuclear antibodies; autoimmune diseases; infection; scrub typhus; tuberculosis.
What is antinuclear antibody HEp-2 IGG?
Presence of anticellular antibody (formerly antinuclear antibody) is a feature of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, Sjogren syndrome and systemic sclerosis and some inflammatory myopathies (dermatomyositis, anti-synthetase syndrome and …
What is ANA HEp-2 IgG?
Indirect immunofluorescence test for the qualitative determination of antinuclear IgG antibodies (ANA) in serum or plasma. Our cultured Hep-2 cells allow for simultaneous detection of a variety of autoantibodies with a single analytical preparation.
Where are HEp-2 cells from?
What is ANA HEp-2 positive dense fine speckled?
The dense fine speckled (DFS) pattern as detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells has been associated with several inflammatory diseases but is most commonly observed in individuals that do not have an antinuclear antibody (ANA)-associated rheumatic disease and even in apparently healthy individuals …
What is double immunofluorescence?
In order to be able to examine the co-distribution of two (or more) different antigens in the same sample, a double immunofluorescence procedure can be carried out.
When do you use direct or indirect immunofluorescence?
Direct IF uses a single antibody directed against the target of interest. The primary antibody is directly conjugated to a fluorophore. Indirect IF uses two antibodies. The primary antibody is unconjugated and a fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody directed against the primary antibody is used for detection.
When do you use indirect immunofluorescence?
Indirect immunofluorescence, or secondary immunofluorescence, is a technique used in laboratories to detect circulating autoantibodies in patient serum. It is used to diagnose autoimmune blistering diseases.