Table of Contents
What is the pathogenesis of Neisseria meningitidis?
Neisseria meningitidis is a harmless commensal bacterium finely adapted to humans. Unfortunately, under “privileged” conditions, it adopts a “devious” lifestyle leading to uncontrolled behavior characterized by the unleashing of molecular weapons causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and acute meningitis.
How is Neisseria meningitidis identified?
N. meningitidis can be identified using Kovac’s oxidase test and carbohydrate utilization. If the oxidase test is positive, carbohydrate utilization testing should be performed. If the carbohydrate utilization test indicates that the isolate may be N.
What is meningococcal serogroup?
Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. N. meningitidis can be classified into 12 serogroups based on its capsular polysaccharide; serogroups A, B, C, W, X, and Y are the primary causes of meningococcal disease worldwide.
What is the first stage of meningitis pathogenesis?
The first symptom of meningitis is usually vomiting. A severe bursting headache develops when the meninges have become inflamed and the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid has increased. Stiffness of the neck then develops, owing to irritation of the spinal nerves supplying those muscles.
What are the virulence factors of Neisseria meningitidis?
The virulence (14) of N. meningitidis is influenced by multiple factors: capsule polysaccharide expression, expression of surface adhesive proteins (outer membrane proteins including pili, porins PorA and B, adhesion molecules Opa and Opc), iron sequestration mechanisms, and endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide, LOS).
How is bacterial meningitis diagnosed?
Diagnosis. If a doctor suspects meningitis, they will collect samples of blood or cerebrospinal fluid (fluid near the spinal cord). A laboratory will test the samples to see what is causing the infection. Knowing the specific cause of meningitis helps doctors treat it.
What is Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B?
N. meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) has become the leading cause of meningococcal disease across several regions, including Europe and America. Although the overall incidence is low compared to other vaccine-preventable diseases, MenB disease carries substantial case fatality rate at 3% to 10%.
What is serogroup B meningococcal vaccine?
Meningococcal B vaccine can help protect against meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B. A different meningococcal vaccine is available that can help protect against serogroups A, C, W, and Y.
What is the pathophysiology of viral meningitis?
The pathogenesis of viral meningitis begins when the causative agent enters the host through respiratory secretions or by the fecal-oral route to cause primary infection in the respiratory or gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Which of the following are virulence factors contributing the pathogenicity of Neisseria species?
Which of the following are virulence factors contributing the pathogenicity of Neisseria species? d. the release of lipid A into the tissues, triggering severe inflammation and DIC.
What is the major virulence factor for all of the three most common bacterial causes of meningitis?
Meningococci have 3 important virulence factors, as follows: Polysaccharide capsule – Individuals with immunity against meningococcal infections have bactericidal antibodies against cell wall antigens and capsular polysaccharide; a deficiency of circulating antimeningococcal antibodies is associated with disease.
What pathogen causes bacterial meningitis?
Several strains of bacteria can cause acute bacterial meningitis, most commonly: Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). This bacterium is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in infants, young children and adults in the United States. It more commonly causes pneumonia or ear or sinus infections.
What is serogroup?
Medical Definition of serogroup : a group of serotypes having one or more antigens in common.
What is the difference between meningococcal and meningococcal B?
The MenACWY vaccine is very effective at protecting against four strains of the bacteria, while the MenB vaccine protects against a fifth strain.
What type of vaccines are serogroup B?
What is the causative agent of bacterial meningitis?
Causes. Bacterial Meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. Three types of bacteria are responsible for 80% of all Bacterial Meningitis. These are: 1) Hemophilus influenzae (type B), 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus), and 3) Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus).