Advices

What are hydrates and solvates?

What are hydrates and solvates?

Hydrates and solvates are thus multicomponent crystalline solid molecular adducts containing both the host molecule (API or excipient) and guest molecule (water (hydrate) or other solvents (solvate)) incorporated in the crystal lattice structure, commonly known as pseudopolymorphic forms.

What is a solvate crystal?

Crystal solvates tend to form during the process of crystallization with the help of a solvent. The crystalline solids that contains the molecules of solvent inside their crystal assembly (stoichiometrically or nonstoichiometrically) are known as solvates, also inappropriately, pseudopolymorphs.

Why do some molecules form hydrates or solvates?

For a solvate to form, the solute−solvent affinity must overwhelm the solute−solute and solvent−solvent affinities. A strong solute−solvent affinity in itself is not sufficient. Solvent-phobic molecules can be induced to form solvates by virtue of a pΔV potential.

Why most pharmaceutical preparations were formed as hydrates rather than solvates?

Solvates and hydrates occur commonly for a large number of pharmaceutical materials. Pharmaceutical hydrates are viable forms for drug products because there is no safety concern about water as a crystal adduct.

What is Pseudopolymorphs?

Pseudopolymorphs, also known as hydrates or solvates, contain molecules from the crystallization solvent within the crystal lattice (Bechtloff et al. 2001 ). These solvent molecules are often located in discrete crystal sites and bound within the lattice (e.g., hydrogen bonding) (Yu et al.

Is a solvate a salt?

salt: a crystal containing at least two ions. solvate: any crystal with a solvent molecule plus either a coformer or at least two ions. cocrystal: a crystal with a coformer molecule plus either another coformer or at least two ions.

What is the chemical difference between hydrates and Cocrystal?

The compounds which are liquid at room temperature are called as solvates whereas those compounds which are solid at room temperature are called as cocrystals. If the solvates contain water as a solvent in their crystal lattice then they are known as hydrates [21].

Why do hydrates form?

Hydrates are formed when water and light end natural gases come into contact at certain temperature and pressure conditions. These gas hydrates are crystals formed by water with natural gases and associated liquids, in a ratio 85 % mole water to 15 % hydrocarbons.

Why are hydrates important?

Gas hydrates are important for three reasons: They may contain a major energy resource. It may be a significant hazard because it alters sea floor sediment stability, influencing collapse and landsliding.

What are solvates in chemistry?

(Entry 1 of 2) : an aggregate that consists of a solute ion or molecule with one or more solvent molecules also : a substance (such as a hydrate) containing such ions.

What is Monotropic polymorph?

A monotrope is a polymorph that does not have a reversible transformation into another polymorph at atmospheric pressure. One polymorph is always stable and the other is metastable.

What is salvation energy?

The energy of solvation is the amount of energy associated with dissolving a solute in a solvent. If it is a positive number, the dissolving process is endothermic; if it is negative, it’s exothermic. Chemistry.

What is a cocrystal and why are they important in pharmaceuticals?

Cocrystal engineering is relevant to production of energetic materials, pharmaceuticals, and other compounds. Of these, the most widely studied and used application is in drug development and more specifically, the formation, design, and implementation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API).

What is the difference between cocrystal and salt?

LTG-NCT cocrystal is more soluble than drug at pH > 3 and reaches solubilities 18 times the drug solubility at pH ≥ 6. The cocrystal is also more soluble than the SAC salt at pH < 7, and is orders of magnitude more soluble than the salt at pH < 3.

What are the uses of hydrate?

Examples of hydrates are gypsum (commonly used in the manufacturing of wallboard, cement and plaster of Paris), Borax (used in many cosmetic, cleaning and laundry products) and epsom salt (used as a natural remedy and exfoliant). Hydrates are often used in skin care products to infuse moisture into the body.

Why are hydrates important in chemistry?

The significance of hydration The hydration process has enormous significance for chemical reactions. This is primarily because in many reactions water is present to on extent or another, as water is the main and most popular solvent among all substances.

How are hydrates used in real life?

What are hydrates and what are the uses of it?

hydrate, any compound containing water in the form of H2O molecules, usually, but not always, with a definite content of water by weight. The best-known hydrates are crystalline solids that lose their fundamental structures upon removal of the bound water.

Which option will be the best example of the physicochemical properties of drugs?

Which option will be the best example of the physicochemical properties of drugs? Explanation: The various Physicochemical properties of the drug that affect drug dissolution and its rate are Solubility, particle size, polymorphism, salt form, pseudopolymorphism, complexation, wettability, etc.

What are non solvates?

Polar solutes such as sodium chloride are solvated by polar solvents such as water; they are not solvated by non-polar solvents such as benzene. Non-polar solutes such as icosane are solvated by non-polar solvents such as benzene; they are not solvated by polar solvents such as water.

What is a solvate?

Definition of solvate (Entry 1 of 2) : an aggregate that consists of a solute ion or molecule with one or more solvent molecules also : a substance (such as a hydrate) containing such ions

What are crystalline solvates?

Crystal solvates tend to form during the process of crystallization with the help of a solvent. The crystalline solids that contains the molecules of solvent inside their crystal assembly (stoichiometrically or nonstoichiometrically) are known as solvates, also inappropriately, pseudopolymorphs.

How do I use the VMD solvate plugin?

The VMD solvate plugin places the protein in a box of water of a specified dimension and removes water molecules that are put inside of the lipid membrane. First, in order to measure the thickness of the water layer minmax option of the measure command can be used as in the following in VMD:

What are hydrates and solvates in drugs?

Hydrates and Solvates (Pseudomorphism) Hydrates or solvates of a drug substance, similar to polymorphs, are crystal modifications of a drug substance. This characteristic of solvate formation is sometimes known as pseudomorphism.