How does the nebular theory explain hot Jupiters?

How does the nebular theory explain hot Jupiters?

The nebular theory predicts that massive Jupiter-like planets should not form inside the frost line (at << 5 AU). The discovery of hot Jupiters has forced reexamination of nebular theory. Planetary migration or gravitational encounters may explain hot Jupiters.

How do we explain hot Jupiters?

A hot Jupiter is a planet that’s around the mass and size of Jupiter. But instead of being far away from the sun like our own Jupiter, it’s very close to its star. The exact definitions vary, but for the purpose of the Annual Review article we say it’s a Jupiter within about 0.1 astronomical units of its star.

Why are hot Jupiters unexpected in the solar nebula hypothesis?

*Hot Jupiters are jovian planets that are very close to their stars. Their discovery came as a surprise to scientists because in our solar system jovian planets are only found far from the Sun.

Are there hot Jupiters in our solar system?

But it’s become clear that this is by no means the case. Many distant stars have gas giants orbiting much closer to them, and these are known as hot Jupiters. Our Solar System doesn’t have a hot Jupiter, but what if it did? Venus was known to ancient astronomers as the morning or evening star.

How are hot Jupiters formed?

One of the leading theories of hot-Jupiter formation holds that gas giants in distant orbits become hot Jupiters when the gravitational influences from nearby stars or planets drive them into closer orbits.

How do we think hot Jupiters formed?

How do we think hot Jupiters formed? Hot Jupiters formed beyond the frost line, as in our solar system, and migrated inward due to interaction with the solar nebula.

Why are hot Jupiters important?

These systems, these stars and their hot Jupiters, are too far away to resolve the individual star and its planet. All we can see is a point, the combined light source of the two. So measuring spectra from hot Jupiters is a feat unto itself. And it’s an important tool for astronomers who want to study these worlds.

How many hot Jupiters are there?

Among the more confounding planets discovered to date are “hot Jupiters” — massive balls of gas that are about the size of our own Jovian planet but that zing around their stars in less than 10 days, in contrast to Jupiter’s plodding, 12-year orbit. Scientists have discovered about 400 hot Jupiters to date.

Which best describes the current status of nebular theory since discovering hot Jupiters ‘?

Which of the following best explains why the nebular theory(as it stood before the discoveries of extrasolar planets) had not predicted the existence of hot Jupiters? There are no hot Jupiters in our solar system.

Where is hot Jupiter?

Hot Jupiters are gas giant planets with orbital period less than 10 days. The short period means that hot Jupiters are very close to their host stars, usually less than 0.1 AU, one tenth of the distance between the Earth and the Sun.

What are the stages of nebular theory?

Three processes occurred with the nebular collapse: Temperatures continued to increase. The solar nebula spun faster and faster. The solar nebula disk flattened.

Who discovered the nebular theory?

The first version of the nebular hypothesis was proposed in 1755 by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant and modified in 1796 by Pierre Laplace. The nebula that according to this hypothesis condensed to form the solar system is called the solar nebula.

What is the solar nebula theory?

solar nebula, gaseous cloud from which, in the so-called nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system, the Sun and planets formed by condensation. Swedish philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg in 1734 proposed that the planets formed out of a nebular crust that had surrounded the Sun and then broken apart.

How was the solar system formed nebular theory?

The nebular theory states that our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar gas cloud—the solar nebula. – (Nebula is the Latin word for cloud.) Kant and Laplace proposed the nebular hypothesis over two centuries ago. A large amount of evidence now supports this idea.

What is nebula theory?

The nebular hypothesis is the idea that a spinning cloud of dust made of mostly light elements, called a nebula, flattened into a protoplanetary disk, and became a solar system consisting of a star with orbiting planets [12].

What are the steps of the nebular theory?

The steps to nebular theory go as follows. Nebula becomes a solar nebula as a region within the cloud of gas and dust condenses into a core and forms a protostar. The condensing material could have been caused by a nearby supernova shockwave. The material surrounding the protostar collapses into an accretion disk.

What is the process of nebular theory?

According to the nebular theory, stars form in massive and dense clouds of molecular hydrogen—giant molecular clouds (GMC). These clouds are gravitationally unstable, and matter coalesces within them to smaller denser clumps, which then rotate, collapse, and form stars.

What is nebular theory?

Our solar system formed at the same time as our Sun as described in the nebular hypothesis. The nebular hypothesis is the idea that a spinning cloud of dust made of mostly light elements, called a nebula, flattened into a protoplanetary disk, and became a solar system consisting of a star with orbiting planets [12].

What is solar nebular theory?

What if we don’t have a theory that can make a hot Jupiter?

Those missing ingredients probably affect many planetary systems even if the outcome isn’t a hot Jupiter-a hot Jupiter, we think, is probably an extreme outcome. If we don’t have a theory that can make hot Jupiters at all, then we’re probably missing out on those important processes.

What is the nebular hypothesis?

The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System (as well as other planetary systems).

How did the solar nebular model explain the formation of planets?

In the framework of the solar nebular model two theories for their formation exist. The first one is the disk instability model, where giant planets form in the massive protoplanetary disks as a result of its gravitational fragmentation (see above). The second possibility is the core accretion model,…

Is it possible to study the interior of a hot Jupiter?

TESS is going on right now-and its discoveries are around really bright stars, so it becomes possible to study the whole system that has a hot Jupiter using the radial velocity method to better characterize the overall architecture of the planetary system.